hour fitness hour         swimming pool










    (joga, dance, pilates)

    11.45 swimming (jacuzzi, relax)



    kegel 14.00 gymnastics in water


    9.30 healthy spine    










Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly. 


Glucose comes from the  digestion of starchy foods. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps the glucose to enter the cells where it is used as fuel by the body. When you have diabetes the amount of insulin your body produces does not work properly or the body is unable to produce any insulin. The production of insulin is a vital part of metabolism.

There are two main types of diabetes. These are:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes develops if the body is unable to produce any insulin. This type of diabetes usually appears among children and teenagers.  Type 1 diabetes is the least common of the two main types and accounts for between 5 – 15% of all people with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough, or when the insulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulin resistance). This type of diabetes usually appears in people over the age of 40. You may also be at risk if you are overweight or have problems with metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the most common of the two main types and accounts for between 85 - 95% of all people with diabetes.

The risk factors

A close member of your family has Type 2 diabetes (parent or brother or sister).
• You are overweight.

You have high blood pressure or you’ve had a heart attack or a stroke.
• You are a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome and you are overweight.
•You have impaired glucose tolerance.
• You are over 45.

You have high cholesterol levels and low immunity to infections.

Diabetes symptoms • Increased thirst
• Going to the toilet (for a wee) all the time – especially at night
• Extreme tiredness or feeling sleepy
• Weight loss
• Blurred vision
• Genital itching
• Slow healing of wounds

• High blood glucose levels

• Mood swings
• Nausea
• Skin infections
• Problems with erection

• Gum diseases


Treating diabetes

Tablets and/or insulin are usually required to achieve normal blood glucose levels. You also need to monitor your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Lifestyle changes such as a healthier diet, weight loss and increased physical activity are recommended. A healthy diet, and regular exercise may be enough to lower your blood glucose levels and to exclude tablets and/or insulin intake. You should remember all the decisions regarding your health should be made by a doctor.



Carers have a very responsible job to do – to help senior citizens accept the disease. Adapting to diabetes will allow them to lead a normal life. The carers/volunteers will have to discipline regular monitoring your health – checking blood sugar levels, the medicine intake, eating well and following a good diet, organizing different activities.

You can lead a healthy life with diabetes. However, if it is not cured, it may do a lot of harm to your body and damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and major arteries.






Senile dementia is the mental deterioration (loss of intellectual ability) that is associated with old age. The main symptom is a deepening memory disorder.

Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may bedisoriented in time (not knowing what day of the week, month, or even what year it is), in place (not knowing where they are), and in person (not knowing who they are). However, they may remember very well what happened many years ago. Dementia may involve:

  • progressive deterioration of thinking & memory ( “I don’t know who I am”)

  • mental disorder

  • amnesia (the person does not remember facts or actions

  • progressive deterioration of behavior & personality function (forgetting how to walk, sit, eat etc.)

A person with senile dementia is totally dependent on other people, cannot perform daily activities, has problems with making contact with others. This means they cannot work and be socially active. Senile dementia is a progressive and incurable disease.





Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder. People with Alzheimer’s experience difficulties communicating, learning, thinking and reasoning.

The main symptoms are:

- deepening memory loss

- difficulty performing familiar tasks

- problems with language, speech & abstract thinking

- disorientation to time and place

- poor or decreased judgment

- changes in mood, behaviour & personality

- loss of initiative

There are 3 stages of Alzheimer’s disease:

Stage 1

- memory lapses

- problems with remembering new information

- rapid changes in behaviour without apparent reason

- mood swings

Stage 2

Reduced memory and deepening memory loss causes:

- losing capacity for recognizable speech

- problems with recognizing space and moving around

- mental& emotional disorder

Stage 3

A person with Alzheimer’s forgets not only facts, but also basic bodily functions:

- they lose the ability to walk without assistance, then the ability to sit without support

- they need help with eating and toileting and there is general incontinence of urine

Alzheimer’s gets worse over time, and it is fatal.





Parkinson's disease is a brain disorder.  It occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain die or become impaired.

The signs and symptoms are:

  • Tremor (shaking), especially hands

  • Slowness of movement

  • Rigidity (stiffness)

  • Difficulty with balance

  • Muffled speech

  • Depression

The symptoms of Parkinson’s increase slowly, starting with a slowing of physical movement and reduction of a person’s ability to initiate voluntary movement (even the simplest tasks might be difficult and time-consuming), to a loss of physical movement, in extreme cases. When experiencingimpaired posture and balance, a person must consult a doctor.

The medicines most commonly used improves the tremor, rigidity and slowness associated with Parkinson's disease, but does not cure the disease.




Living with an elderly, sick person, you should remember:

- to accept the diseased person

- to familiarize yourself with the disease

- to help the diseased person to live in dignity and to help them with their daily tasks

- not to compel the sick person to learn and remember new things

- not to argue with the sick person

- to be tolerant to the mistakes made by the diseased (they do not realize they are making them)

- to show understanding, patience and warmth





Some of the symptoms of MS (multiple sclerosis) are: changes in sensation, muscle weakness, difficulty in moving, difficulties with coordination and balance, problems in speech or swallowing, visual problems, bladder and bowel difficulties and depression. If a person notices any of the above symptoms, they should immediately consult a doctor and have thorough tests conducted. Although there is no cure for MS, effective strategies are available to modify the disease course and to improve function and safety.

Pharmacological treatment is the most important, but rehabilitation, proper diet, vitamins and minerals can be also very effective in slowing down the symptoms of MS.

A person with MS should have:

- medication

- rehabilitation

- psychological help assured.

A person with MS should not feel discriminated.





Depression among old people is very often ignored by their closest family, regarding it as another stage of getting old. That does not change the fact that the depression should be treated. People chronically ill feel guilty, they lack confidence and self esteem. These feelings, together with suppressing negative emotions can cause depression.


The main symptoms of depression are:

- constant feelings of sadness, irritability or tension

- decreased interest or pleasure in usual activities or hobbies

- loss of energy, feeling tired despite lack of activity

- loss of appetite

- difficulty sleeping

- restlessness or feeling slowed down, tired

- decreased ability to make decisions or concentrate

- feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt

- despair

- difficulty concentrating

Family can be very important when diagnosing depression. They can notice early signs and can also help the sick person to get help and start the treatment. The patients should be surrounded by people who support, understand and make them feel secure. 



How to care for the elderly


In order to look after senior citizens, you need to remember:


1. to be willing to help


2. to find within yourself an enormous amount of warmth, care, tolerance and patience


3. to confront daily difficulties that follow the disease


If the carer has all these qualities, looking after the elderly will be pleasurable, productive and less burdensome for both parties.


Forms of spending time actively


If you are willing to organize free time for an elderly person, you have to consider:


- their health


- their capabilities


- their desires


- their habits


There are a lot of different forms of spending time actively, but every carer, knowing his/her charge, should find a suitable form individually. In Germany there are active Senior Clubs, where a lot of senior citizens belong to, they organize their free time by doing exercise, learning languages, travelling, lectures etc. If your charge is in good health, you should encourage them (by involving their families for example) to take part in such activities. If your charge is bedridden or does not leave the house, then the activities may involve reading a book or favourite magazine, massaging, watching television, listening to the radio or organizing family dinner.


Sleep disorder in the elderly


Sleep is necessary for your body to work properly. Sleep disorder is always adverse and has a negative influence on your physical and mental efficiency during the day. The older you get the less sleep you need. Older people often sleep during the day because of sleepless nights. Typical behaviour among the elderly is: problems with falling asleep, waking up at nighttime, then problems with falling asleep again. Sleep disorder is influenced by bad health, different diseases, physical malfunction and taking sleeping pills (an elderly person should not take them without consulting a doctor first). Sleep disorder may be one of the symptoms of depression, often occurring among the elderly.


A few tips on how to deal with insomnia:


- you should always go to bed at the same time


- you should reduce coffee and tea intake


- you should reduce eating square meals before bedtime, but you should not go to bed hungry


- you should feel quiet when falling asleep


- you should relax by taking a hot bath, reading a book, taking a walk or listening to music


- you should calm down by drinking a glass of milk (it includes lactose – a natural sedative) or herbal infusions (chamomile, hop, passion fruit, melissa, valerian).


You must remember that a person suffering from prolonged insomnia should consult a doctor (a neurologist or psychiatrist).


How to unwind in stressful situations


Bottling anger, irritation and aggression has a negative influence on us and our environment. When we are stressed and the situation surpasses us, we should go for a walk (if we can). Breathing fresh air will calm us down and we will be able to look at the reasons of our anger and frustration. They usually have their roots in feeling helpless, bitter or insecure. In order to be more resistant to different unexpected situations and unavoidable episodes you should learn to look after your needs, protect yourself and your emotions, which means being assertive. It consists in standing up to the demands other people make on us that are prohibitive.


The most important thing is to sit down, relax, find a moment for yourself after a hard day. If we want to unwind our charge, we have to start with ourselves. Raised voice and irritability are emotions that can be easily sensed by another person, they might start acting the same way. Instead of reacting nervously, we should empathize with an elderly person (very often ailing, unaware of their behaviour, dependent and humiliated) we should listen to what they are trying to say in words, gestures or silence.


Home therapies


Book therapy consists in reading, listening to or watching suitable books or works. The basis is empathy with our charge and the right choice of the book. You should consider the age, gender and emotional state of your charge.


Classification of the books in therapy:


- in order to calm down – adventure books, fairy tales, fantasy books and humorous stories.


- in order to feel stimulated – picaresque novels, war stories, travel books and scientific books


- in order to be reflective – moral books, biographies, romantic novels, psychological, social and religious novels;


Aromatherapy consists in using different essential oils to massage, inhale or in a bath. Pleasant scents bring back memories, stimulate appetite, strike optimism and refresh.


Use of essential oils:


- tea tree oil stimulates your immune system


- myrrh oil cures throat infections


- chamomile, lavender and hawthorn oil cures chronic arthritis


- sage, tangerine and patchouli oil helps to relax


- cypress, jasmine and yang-yang oil is said to cope with jealousy


- lavender, mint and geranium oil helps to get rid of headaches


- anise, eucalyptus and rosemary oil helps to cure coughs and colds


- juniper, rose and neroli oil helps to calm down


- ginger, coriander and cypress oil helps to ease rheumatic pains


- juniper, lavender and mint oil eases muscle pains


- rose, geranium and lavender prevents insomnia


Massaging the body using essential oils – you need to use fragrance-free and skin-friendly oils. You should dissolve them in olive oil (2-3 drops of essential oil in 1 tablespoon of olive oil). This amount will be enough for one massage. You must not use undiluted essential oils directly onto skin or increase the dose.


Taking a bath using essential oils – it should last between 15-30 minutes. You should add 10 drops of oils to running, warm water. If soaking hands or feet only, you need to decrease the amount of oils. After the bath you should towel yourself (there is no need to rinse the whole body). During the bath you should not be using any bath soaks and creams. The bath should be purely relaxing.


Inhalation using essential oils – you should use a special dish, heated by a tea candle. The inhalation should be done in the morning and evening, using 10 drops of oils (no more than 5 different kinds) per treatment.


Aromatherapy is effective only when using natural essential oils, not synthetic scent substances.


Herbal medicine. Herbs in medical treatment are most often used as: infusions, drops, syrups, essential oils, pills and capsules. When using herbs competently you can cure a lot of minor illnesses. However, in case of serious diseases, using herbs should be consulted with a doctor. Effectiveness of herbal medicine depends on the right choice of herbs and the patient’s health.


These are the most popular herbs:




Aloe vera

mild purgative, germicidal, effective in wound healing

Arnica montana

acts as an anti-inflammatory, used for strains, sprains and bruises, also used in neuralgia

Ginger root

used in indigestion, diarrhea, nausea & travel sickness

Frangulae cortex

purgative, used to treat constipation

Willow bark

antiphlogistic, antifebrile, analgesic


used in sleeping problems & nervousness

Burdock root

a blood purifier, diuretic & a scalp treatment (improves hair strength)


used in upset stomach, kidney and bladder stones, liver complaints & loss of appetite

Ginseng root

used as a nourishing stimulant & an adaptogen (increases the body's resistance to stress)

Lime flower (tilia)

used in treating restlessness, to promote sweating & reduce fever


a mild sedative & digestive aid, lowers blood pressure


astringent & antibacterial, used in inflammation of the skin

Lemon balm (Melissa)

antibacterial & antiviral, also used as a mild sedative


helps against upset stomach, relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter


antibacterial & expectorant

Caraway fruit

used as a remedy for loss of appetite and digestive disorders


antiseptic, reduces minor skin irritation


used as a cardiac tonic, nervine, also for combating stress


used for respiratory infections, very effective against inflammation of the throat













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